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What IS Nanotechnology and Its Applications and Development

Nanotechnology is a technology used to produce materials with a single atom and molecule, studying and researching the properties and applications of materials whose structural sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers.

The video dives into materials science and advanced materials, and looks at how designing and engineering substances from the atoms they're made of upward allows novel properties to be developed and used. It also looks at responsible innovation when it comes to grappling with the benefits as well as the health and environmental risks of nanoparticles and nanomaterials.


Article Core



Theoretical Meaning

Historical Viewpoint

Molecular Nanotechnology

Limit of Micromachining Technology

A Biological View

Main Substance

A Comprehensive Subject

Four Main Areas of Nanotechnology

1) Nanomaterials

2) Nanodynamics

3) Nanobiology and Nanopharmacology

4) Nanoelectronics


Nanophase Measuring Techniques

Processing Technology

Particle Preparation

1) Vacuum Cooling Method

2) Physical Grinding Method

3) Mechanical Ball Milling Method

4) Vapor Deposition Method

5) Precipitation Method

6) Hydrothermal Synthesis Method 

7) Sol-gel Method

8) Emblem Emulsion Method 

Material Synthesis

Assembly Technique


Related Product

1) Robots

2) Raincoat-umbrella

3) Water-proof Material

Future Prospects of Nanotechnology

Research and Development

1) Nanomaterials

2) DNA Microarrays

3) Eco-environment

4) Medical Domain

5) Energy Field

6) Electronics Field

Nanotechnology Damages

For Society

For Health


Nanotechnology is based on many modern advanced science technologies. It is the combination of modern science (chaos physics, quantum mechanics, mesoscopic physics, molecular biology) and modern technology (computer technology, microelectronics and scanning tunneling microscopy, nuclear analysis). And meanwhile, nanotechnology will lead to a series of new science technologies, such as nanophysics, nanobiology, nanochemistry, nanoelectronics, nanoprocessing technology and nanometrology.

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Theoretical Meaning

As mentioned earlier, nanotechnology is a technique for studying the properties and applications of materials with structural sizes ranging from 1 nm to 100 nm. After the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981, a molecular world with a range length of 1 to 100 nm was created, the ultimate goal of which is to construct products with specific functions directly from atoms or molecules. Therefore, nanotechnology is actually a manufacturing technology with single atom, molecular.

Historical Viewpoint

Nanotechnology divided into three concepts with the time development

The first is the molecular nanotechnology proposed by Dr. Drexler, an American scientist, in a book called Machine of Creation, in 1986. According to this concept, the machine of combinatorial molecules can be made practical, so that all kinds of molecules can be combined arbitrarily, and any kind of molecular structure can be produced. This concept of the nanotechnology has not yet made significant progress.

The second concept defines nanotechnology as the limit of micromachining technology. This is the technique of artificial formation of nano-sized structures by means of nano-precision "processing". This nano processing technology also make semiconductor miniaturization is about to reach its limit. Though it is theoretical, it will accomplish someday, if the wire amplitude of the circuit is gradually reduced, the insulation film which constitutes the circuit will become extremely thin, but it will destroy the insulation effect. In addition, there are problems such as heating and shaking. To solve these problems, researchers are studying the new nanotechnology.

The third concept is proposed from the biological point of view. Due to there are nanoscale structures in cells and biofilms naturally, with the development of DNA molecular computer and cellular biological computer, biology has become an important content of nanotechnology.

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Main Substance

Nanotechnology is a comprehensive subject, the content of research involves a wide range of modern science and technology. Nanophase science and technology include:

Nanophysics, nanochemistry, nanomaterials, nanobiology, nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, etc. And other three research areas include nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanoscale detection and characterization. These seven relatively independent and interpenetrating disciplines and three research areas are the main contents of nanotechnology. In addition, the preparation and research of nanomaterials are the basis of the whole nanotechnology. Among them, nanophysics and nanochemistry are the theoretical basis of nanotechnology, and nanoelectronics is the most important content of nanotechnology.

In the specialized field, nanotechnology is divided into six branches: nanophysics, nanobiology, nanochemistry, nanoelectronics, nanoprocessing technology and nanometrology, which promote the development of nanotechnology. Because of its particularity, practicability and universality, it attracts many excellent scientists all over the world to study it one after another. Nanotechnology generally refers to materials, design, manufacture, measurement, control, and product technologies which achieving nano grade. Nanotechnology mainly includes: nanophase measurement technology, testing technology of physical, nanoscale processing technology, nanometer particle preparation technology, nanomaterials, nanobiology, nano-assembly, etc.

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Introduction of Four Main Areas of Nanotechnology:

1) Nanomaterials

When the material reaches the nano-grade level, in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers, the properties of the material will mutate and then exhibit special properties. This material, which is not only different from the original composition of atoms, molecules, but also different from the  macroscopical materials with special properties, that is, nanomaterials.

Although a material reaches the nano grade, without special properties, it cannot be called nanomaterial.

In the past, people only paid attention to atoms, molecules or space, and often ignored this intermediate field, which actually existed in nature, because people did not realize the performance of this scale. The first to really recognize its properties and cite the concept of “nanometers” was the Japanese scientists who, in the 1970s, made picoions by evaporation, and studied its properties: a conductive, heat-conductive copper, silver conductors lost their original properties when they were nano-grade, showing neither conduction nor heat conduction characteristic. The same is true of magnetic materials, such as Fe-Co alloys, which are made of about 20-30 nanometers, the magnetic domain becomes a single magnetic domain and its magnetic property is 1000 times higher than that of the original one. In the mid-1980s, this kind of material was officially named as a nanomaterial.

Why is it that the magnetic domain becomes a single magnetic domain and the magnetic field is 1000 times higher than the original one? This is because a single atom in a magnetic domain is not arranged regularly, while a nucleus is in the middle of a single atom with electrons rotate around it outside, which is also the reason for the formation of magnetism. However, when the magnetic domain becoming a single magnetic domain, a single atom is arranged regularly, showing a stronger magnetic performance.

According to this feature, it is mainly used in the manufacture of small special electrical machines. If the technology is developed in a certain age, it can be used to manufacture maglev, which can produce more faster, stable and more energy efficient high-speed trains.

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2) Nanodynamics 

It is mainly about micro-mechanical and micro-motor, or micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), which used for micro sensors and actuators, optical-fiber communication systems, special electronic devices, medical and diagnostic instruments, etc. In other words, it is a new process similar to the design and manufacture of integrated appliances. Features of this kind of devices are having small components, tens to hundreds of microns of etching depth, and small width error. This process can also be used to make three-phase motors, super-fast centrifuges or gyroscopes, etc. In the aspect of research area, we should detect the micro deformation and friction of the quasi-atom scale accordingly. Although they are not yet real enter nanometer scale, but have great potential scientific and economic value.

In theory: micro-machine and detection technology can reach the nanometer level.

3) Nanobiology and Nanopharmacology 

For example, dna particles are immobilized on the surface of mica by Gold nanoparticle technique; intermolecular interaction is tested at the interdigitated electrode on silica surface; fine structure of dna, and bilayer plane biofilm of phospholipid and fatty acid. With nanotechnology, self-assembly can also be used to insert parts or components into cells to form new materials. Futher more, about half of the new drugs, even the fine powder of micron particles, are insoluble in water, but in the case of nanoscale particles (that is, ultrafine particles), they are soluble in water.

When nanobiology is developed to a certain technology, nanomaterials can be used to make nano-biological cells with recognition ability, and can be made biomedicine to kill cancer cells when injecting them into human body.

4) Nanoelectronics 

It includes nano-electronic devices based on quantum effect, optical / electrical properties of nanostructures, characterization of nano-electronic materials, atomic manipulation and atomic assembly. The current trend of electronic technology requires devices and systems to be smaller, faster, colder. Smaller means faster to respond. Colder means that the power consumption of a single device is low. But these indexes don’t have limits, nanotechnology, its impact will be enormous.

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At present, the research and application of nanotechnology are mainly in the fields of materials preparation, microelectronics, computer technology, medicine and health, space and aviation, environment and energy, biotechnology and agricultural products. Nanomaterials have many advantages: lighter weight, stronger hardness, longer life, lower maintenance costs, easier design. It can also be used to produce materials with specific properties or the materials that do not exist in nature, such as biomimetic materials and biomimetic materials.

1) Nanometers are a measure of geometric size, 1 nanometre = 1/1000000 mm.

2) Nanotechnology drives technological revolution.

3) Nanotechnology can be used to help doctors observe the pathological changes and conditions of cancer cells. And drugs made with nanotechnology can block capillaries and make cancer cells impossible to survive.

4)If nanointegrated devices were used on a satellite, the satellite would be smaller and easier to launch.

5)Nanotechnology is a multi-scientific synthesis, and some of the goals will take a long time to achieve.

6)Nanotechnology and information science technology, life science technology are the current mainstream of scientific development, their improvement will make human society, living environment and science technology itself become better.

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Nanophase Measuring Techniques

Nano-grade measurement techniques include the measurement of the size precision and measurement of displacement, and measurement of the surface morphology. Nano-grade measurement technology has two main development directions.

One is the technology of optical interferometry, which uses interference fringes of light to improve the resolution of measurement. The measuring methods include: double-frequency laser interferometry, optical heterodyne interferometry, X-ray interferometry, F-P standard tool measurement, etc. It can be used for accurate measurement of length and displacement, as well as for the measurement of surface morphology.

The second is the scanning measuring technique (STM), which is based on the tunneling effect of quantum mechanics. Its principle is to scan the measured surface with a tip probe (or similar method) (the probe and the measured surface are not directly in contact) to measure the three-dimensional microstereoscopic morphology of the surface by means of the nanophase three-dimensional displacement control system. That is, it is mainly used to measure the microstructure and size of the surface.

The measurement methods based on this principle are: scanning tunneling microscope (STM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and so on.

Processing Technology

The meaning of nano-scale machining is to achieve nano-precision processing technology.

Because the distance between atoms is 0.1-0.3 nm, the essence of nanoprocessing is to cut off the bond between atoms, to remove atoms or molecules, and to cut off the energy needed for interatomic bonding. It is necessary to exceed the interatomic binding energy of the substance, that is, the energy density of the seeding is very large. It is very difficult to carry out nano-grade machining by traditional cutting and grinding methods.

Nanofabrication has made a great breakthrough in recent years. For example, when electron beam lithography (UGA technique) used in very large scale integrated circuits, the fabrication of 0.1 μm linewidth can be realized: ion etching can realize the removal of surface materials of micron and nanometer grade; scanning tunneling microscopy can realize the removal, quantum transition, addition and recombination of atoms.

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Particle Preparation

There are many methods for the preparation of nanoparticles, which can be divided into physical and chemical methods.

1) Vacuum cooling: use vaporization, heating, high-frequency induction, etc., to vaporize or form particles, and then cool them quickly. It is characterized by high purity, good crystalline structure, controllable potential, but needed high requirements of technical equipment.

2) Physical grinding method: through mechanical crushing, EDM explosion and other methods to obtain nanoparticles. It is characterized by simple operation, low cost, low crystal purity and uneven distribution of cis particles.

3) Mechanical ball milling: use the ball milling method and control the appropriate conditions to obtain pure elements, alloys or composite nanoparticles. It has the advantages of simple operation, low cost, low purity and uneven particle distribution.

4) Vapor deposition: the synthesis of nanomaterials method by chemical reaction of metal compounds, the product is characterized by high purity and narrow particle size distribution.

5) Precipitation method: add precipitator into salt solution, then through heat treatment to obtain nanometer material. Its characteristics are simple and practical, but the purity is low, the particle radius is large, thus it is suitable for the preparation of carrier.

6) Hydrothermal synthesis: synthesis of nanocrystalline particles in aqueous solution or steam at high temperature and high pressure after separation and heat treatment. It is characterized by high purity, good dispersion and easy control of particle size.

7) Sol-gel method: metal compounds are solidified by solution, sol, gel, and then heat treated to form nanoparticles. It has the characteristic such as various reaction species, uniform product particles, and easy-controlling process. It is suitable for the preparation of oxide and 11-VI compounds.

8) Emblem emulsion method: insoluble solvents under the action of surfactant to form emulsion, after nucleation, coalescence, agglomeration, heat treatment to obtain nano-particles in the foam. The monodisperse and interfacial properties of the particles are good, 11-VI semiconductor nanoparticles are prepared by this method.

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Material Synthesis

Since 1991, Gleiter and his team took the lead in the preparation of nanomaterials, after 10 years of development, nanomaterials have made great progress. Nowadays, there are many kinds of nanomaterials according to their material quality, including nano-metal materials, nano-ceramic materials, nano-semiconductor materials, nanocomposites, nano-polymeric materials and so on. Nanomaterials are super-immortalized materials, which are called "new materials in the 21st century", and have many specific properties.

For example, the strength and hardness of the material sintered from nanometer metal powder is much higher than that of the original metal, nanometallic materials have become insulators from conductors. Ceramics are generally low in strength and fragile. However, the ceramic sintered with nano-powder not only has high strength but also has good toughness. The melting point of nanomaterials will decrease with the decrease of ultrafine powder diameter. For example, the melting point of gold is 1064℃, but the melting point of gold powder of 10nm is reduced to 940℃, the melting point of gold powder of snm is reduced to 830℃, so the sintering temperature can be greatly reduced, that is, the sintering temperature of nanocrystalline ceramics is much lower than that of the original ceramics. In addition, nanocatalyst added to the gasoline that can improve the efficiency of internal combustion engine.

Adding solid fuel can speed up the rocket. The drug is made into nanometer powder, which can be injected into the vessels smooth access to the microvessels.

Assembly Technique

Due to the etching technology reaches the limitation at nanometer scale, assembly technology will become an important parts of nanotechnology, and people pay much attention to it.

Nanoassembly technology is to assemble atoms, molecules or molecular aggregates through mechanical, physical, chemical or biological methods to form functional structural units. Assembly techniques include molecular ordered assembly, scanning probe atoms, molecular migration and biological assembly. More concretely, molecular ordered assembly is the formation of ordered two-dimensional or three-dimensional molecular systems through physical or chemical interactions between molecules. At present, the latest progress in molecular ordered assembly technology and its application is the discovery of LB films and related properties. Biological macromolecules move towards recognition assembly: protein, nucleic acid and other bioactive macromolecules, their assembly requires bio density orientation, which is very important for the preparation of high performance biofilms, the development of biomolecular devices, and the study of interactions between biomolecules. In the process of assembling lgG biomolecules, it is the first time to use the recognition function of antibody active fragments to assemble active biomolecules. This important development has made a new breakthrough in the directional assembly of biomolecules.

Except the above-mentioned several kinds of assembly, the ordered assembly on the long chain polymer molecules, the bridging self-assembly technology and the application of ordered molecular thin films have also been developed. Nano-processing technology can also be used to process materials at atomic weight level, so that the processing technology can be made into a finer depth. The development of nanostructure self-assembly technology will make a breakthrough in nano-machinery, nano-electromechanical system and nano-biology.

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Nanobiology is used to study the structure and function of various organelles in cells at nanometer size. Study the exchange of matter, energy, and information within and between cells and across organisms.

Biomimetic research, which is a hot research content in nanobiology, has been made a lot of achievements and is the promising part of nanotechnology.

Related Product

1) Robots

Nano-robot is a kind of "functional molecular device", also called molecular robot, which can be designed and manufactured according to the biological principle of molecular structure. And the research and development of nanorobots has become a hot spot in science and technology.

Nanobots have a wide range of potential applications, especially in the medical and military fields.

2) Raincoat-umbrella 

Nano raincoat umbrella is the combination of umbrella and raincoat by using nanotechnology. It has tri-telescopic umbrella and straight pole umbrella. Nano raincoats can be made from nanoscale umbrellas, which are different from conventional raincoats, because they are guaranteed to be absolutely non-wet from head to toe. Because of the nanomaterials, the umbrella can be dried as soon as it is dumped. On the other hand, after the umbrella is transformed into a raincoat, the raincoat can be completely dried by jumping lightly when wearing it.

3) Water-proof Material

Nano-waterproof material can form hydrophobic surface after surface treatment of nano-materials to achieve the purpose of water-proof. The waterproof permeable film of nanofiber is expected to break through the technical barrier(the water pressure and moisture permeability can’t improved simultaneously) of the traditional product, and realize the function of high water pressure and high moisture permeability at the same time. For example, an Australian white T-shirt called "The Cavalier", is woven using "hydrophobic" nanotechnology. This T-shirt can effectively prevent most of the liquid and stains from immersion. With washing machine, its waterproof function can withstand up to 80 times of cleaning, in addition, the cloth has natural self-purification, any stains attached it can be scrubbed or washed clearly.

Unlike other waterproofing applications contain chemicals, the designers of this T-shirts mimic the natural hydrophobicity of lotus leaves. The invention of this fabric may have a revolutionary impact on restaurants and coffee shops. In addition, this cloth can also be used in the medical industry or hospitals, etc.

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Future Prospects of Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the new outskirts of science and innovation in Europe and around the globe, working at the size of individual particles. Top researchers and in addition policymakers overall acclaim the advantages it would convey to the whole society and economy: a large portion of them demand the key part research would play in the quality creation procedure to create exploitable arrangement of innovations by the European business prompting a decision of remarkable applications, items, markets and productive income sources.

A.Uses of Nano-materials & components in space exploration

B.Liquid-Repellent materials

C.Light-Seeking Synthetic Nano robot

D.Diamond Nanothreads

E.Nanomedicine for improved HIV drug therapies

F.Self-healable batteries

G.DNA-based single-electron electronic devices

H.Smart textiles

I.Brain-inspired devices for artificial systems

J.Quantum photonic circuits & applications

K.Multi-function chips

L.Thermoelectric Screen Printing

M.Smarter Self-Assembly

N.Phase-Change Devices and applications

O.Super-powered bionic plants

P.Other potenial innovative ideas

Q.Current Research and Development

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Research and Development

Nanomaterials and their related manufacture in nanotechnology have become the mainstream of the development of science and technology in the 21st century, and it is also one of the most important research hotspots in the world. Nanotechnology has affected the environment, energy, information, life and health and many other industries strongly, and has an extremely broad development prospects.

1) Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials are materials that lie in 1 ~ 100 nm range or either of it as basic units in three-dimensional space. For example, nano-sized titanium oxide, mesoporous silica and other inorganic nano-powders can be used for adsorption or catalyst carriers of drugs. Nano-powders of different materials can be used as coloring dyes for various applications, such as automotive coatings, metal pigments of plastic processing, high-grade ink and printing industry (color), high-grade pearlescent pigments, new wafer pigments, glass pigments, anti-counterfeiting pigments and infrared reflection (or transparent) pigments, etc. What’s more, polymer nanocomposites are expected to replace metal materials material, used for engine gear, oil filter and other automotive structural parts.

The fabric with narrow distribution of ultrafine nanofibers also has the characteristics of high efficiency, low resistance and air slip effect. It can be used in various filtering and protecting products, such as smog masks, air cleaner, and electrospun nanofilters, antistatic nanofilter, haze screen, antistatic nanofiltration layer, improving the performance of the product.

2) DNA Microarrays

DNA microarrays is a nanowire with a thickness of about 50 nanometers prepared by electron electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching. In view of the cost, it is too expensive. So the low-cost optical lithography to make chip components of DNA microarrays is becoming hot .

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3) Eco-environment

In the field of environmental protection, the application of nanomaterials and related technologies can improve the efficiency of energy utilization, and play an important role in air pollution control, water quality control, soil pollution control and so on. The development of high efficient adsorbents, catalysts, flocculants, multifunctional membranes and other nanomaterials, as well as the advanced nanotechnology and combined technology represented by micro nanobubbles, is expected to achieve high efficiency and low cost decontamination of natural water bodies such as rivers, lakes and seas.

The wide spectral response photocatalytic oxidation of nanomaterials with plasma excitons and up-conversion luminescence effects will enable the application of advanced oxidation technology of environmental pollutants with lower cost and better effect within 3~5 years. For example, fast and large-capacity nanocrystalline adsorbents can be used to adsorb heavy metals in water.

Nanomaterials with special structure and morphology can be used for rapid detection of low concentration antibiotics, pesticides and heavy metals in natural water or industrial wastewater. The separation, detection and discrimination of soil pollutants can be realized by using the mechanism of selectivity between different pollutants and nanomaterials. 

4) Medical Domain 

To integrate nanotechnology, cancer research and molecular biomedicine widely, the National Cancer Center (NCI) has proposed the Cancer Nanotechnology Plan. And it will carry on the cross-domain work through the outside project, the in-hospital plan and the nano science and technology standard laboratory to develop nanoscale devices capable of delivering anticancer drugs and multiple anticancer vaccines, as well as nanodevices that distinguish cancer cells from different tissue sources within a tumor, that is, developing nanodevices with both diagnosis and treatment functions.

The composite-functional dressings prepared by nanofibers with continuous transmission, covalent antibacterial and tissue-cell guidance can be used in the treatment of many common chronic refractory diseases, such as diabetes, venous ulcer and so on. Nano-grade ceramic fiber and silica fiber have obvious flexibility and can be used in all kinds of new-type composite materials, with the characteristics like high strength, flame retardant, high-temperature heat insulating, etc. 

Novel hydrogels with nanostructures can be used as biomimetic microenvironmental materials in the study of human cell physiology and pathology, pharmaceutical screening, cosmetics, cosmetic surgery and so on.

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5) Energy Field 

Nanotechnology is an important way to develop clean and low-carbon energy. For example, the solar energy conversed to the electricity, chemical energy conversion (such as hydrogen, methanol, etc.): carbon dioxide transformed to methane, the conversion of heat to electricity, water electrolysis for hydrogen production and efficient production of hydrogen by small organic molecules. In fact, nanotechnology plays an important role in energy-saving field.

6) Electronics Field

In order to develop ultra-miniaturised electronic components, ultra-miniaturised capacitors are required. The two-year EU-funded PICS project has developed tools that could soon lead to the mass production of high-density 3D integrated silicon capacitors, creating new opportunities for SMEs to tap demand for miniaturised high performance electronics across a range of sectors.

Capacitors are found in electronic components. Their role is to deliver power from a single source (such as a battery) – at the correct voltage level – in order for the component to carry out its different functions. Capacitors also protect electronic components against voltage jumps.

There is increasing demand from numerous high-growth high–value sectors, such as medicine, automotive, personal electronics and aeronautics, for applications based on smart and miniaturised sensors. These applications require electronic modules where size, reliability and performance are of equal importance.

The key long term objective of the project, which was completed at the end of August 2015, was to establish a cost effective industrial solution for developing ultra-miniaturised capacitors. Three SMEs joined forces with two research institutes in order to target the specific needs of end users such as aeronautics and medical instruments. Thanks to these partnerships, financial viability was ensured by focusing on the need for mass production.

Nanomedicine is another sector that is rapidly progressing from being primarily research-oriented to delivering measurable results and benefits to patients. The PICS consortium sought to develop high-end integrated capacitors for medical applications, along with the future DRAM market (DRAM is a type of random accessible memory used in various electronic devices such as PCs, smartphones, music players, laptops, netbooks, and tablets). The next step will be to commercially exploit the production innovations developed throughout the project.

A second long term objective of the project was to boost the potential of European SMEs operating within a high-value sector that promises significant growth potential. All three SMEs involved in PICS have benefited through the development of industry contacts and achieved a better understanding of end user needs. The project SMEs were also able to outsource some of their research in order to acquire cutting-edge technological know-how, which will enable them to better exploit their findings in the market place.

In terms of technological innovation, the project developed innovative atomic layer deposition (ALD) materials and tools in order to facilitate the mass production of high density and high voltage capacitors. ALD is a nanotechnology that allows ultra-thin films of just a few nanometres to be deposited in a precisely controlled way. This offers many benefits in semiconductor engineering. The tools developed by the PICS consortium enable 3D structures to be arranged.

A new process for accurately etching nanomaterials was also demonstrated by one of the SMEs, in collaboration with a leading research institute. This technique could be of interest for a number of different applications such as LED lighting and magnetic data storage.

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Nanotechnology Damages

Like biotechnology, nanotechnology has many environmental and safe issues, such as whether small sizes can avoid biological natural defense systems, others like biodegradable, toxic side effects, and so on.

For Society

The presence of nanomaterials (including materials with nanoparticles) is not a hazard, but some aspects of it may be harmful, especially their mobility and enhanced responsiveness.

At the instrumentation level, nanotechnology is used in the military, for example, in the MIT Soldier Nanotechnology Institute, which studies implants or other means of defense equipment, as well as the surveillance through nanodetectors.

For Health

There are four ways for nanoparticles to enter the human body: inhalation, swallowing, absorption from the skin or intentional injection (or release from implants) of nanoparticles in the medical process. Once it enter the human body, they have a high degree of mobility. The behavior of nanoparticles in organs depends on their size, shape and interaction with surrounding tissues. They may cause phagocytes to swallow and destroy the cells of foreign substances, thereby triggering defensive fevers and reducing the body's immunity; They may accumulate in organs because they cannot be degraded or slowly degraded. Because of their enormous surface area, the nanoparticles exposed to tissues and liquids will immediately adsorb the macromolecule, which will affect regulatory mechanisms such as enzymes and other proteins.

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